Bedsharing: Often used interchangeably with co-sleeping. For the purposes of this manual, it is when an infant shares the same sleep surface with another person, including the parents and or siblings.
Bradycardia: Slowed heartbeat.
Brainstem: Part of the brain at the base of the skull and the location for many control systems for functions such as breathing and heartbeat.
Birth Rate: Calculated by dividing the number of live births in a population in a year by the midyear resident population. Birth rates are expressed as the number of live births per 1,000 of the population. The rate may be restricted to births to women of specific age, race, marital status or geographic location.
Birth Cohort Infant Mortality Rates: Based on linked birth and infant death files. In contrast to period rates in which the births and infant deaths occur in the same period or calendar year, infant deaths comprising the numerator of a birth cohort rate may have occurred in the same year as or in the year following the year of birth. The birth cohort infant mortality rate is expressed as the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2): The gas formed when carbon is burned. It is eliminated by the lungs during breathing as a product of metabolism.
Carbon Monoxide (CO): A tasteless, odorless gas that is a by-product of combustion. Carbon monoxide acts as a poison by competing with oxygen for binding sites on hemoglobin, the molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the more remote tissues of the body and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.
Choking: An obstruction within the airway.
Congenital Anomalies: Birth defects; those conditions present in a child at birth that can sometimes be identified through genetic or metabolic screening procedures. Examples include spina bifida and cerebral palsy. A chromosomal abnormality (defect in a chromosome) is a specific type of birth defect that can lead to conditions such as Down’s syndrome or Turner syndrome.
Co-Sleeping: Often used interchangeably with bedsharing. For the purposes of this manual, it is when infants are slept in close proximity to their parent/caregiver but on a separate sleep surface with a firm mattress and no pillows, blankets or toys.
Cyanotic: Showing cyanosis.
Cyanosis: Bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to lack of oxygen in the blood.